References: In vitro and in vivo Effects

  1. Induction of cytokines and chemokines in human monocytes by Mycoplasma fermentans-derived lipoprotein MALP-2.
    Kaufmann A, Muhlradt PF, Gemsa D, Sprenger H. Infect Immun. 1999 Dec;67(12):6303-8.

  2. Effect of MALP-2, a lipopeptide from Mycoplasma fermentans, on bone resorption in vitro.
    Piec G, Mirkovitch J, Palacio S, Muhlradt PF, Felix R. Infect Immun. 1999 Dec;67(12):6281-5.

  3. Mycoplasmal lipopeptide MALP-2 induces the chemoattractant proteins macrophage inflammatory protein 1alpha (MIP-1alpha), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and MIP-2 and promotes leukocyte infiltration in mice.
    Deiters U, Muhlradt PF. Infect Immun. 1999 Jul;67(7):3390-8.

  4. MALP-2, a Mycoplasma lipopeptide with classical endotoxic properties: end of an era of LPS monopoly?
    Galanos C, Gumenscheimer M, Muhlradt P, Jirillo E, Freudenberg M. J Endotoxin Res. 2000;6(6):471-6.

  5. Synergy and cross-tolerance between toll-like receptor (TLR) 2- and TLR4-mediated signaling pathways.
    Sato S, Nomura F, Kawai T, Takeuchi O, Muhlradt PF, Takeda K, Akira S. J Immunol. 2000 Dec 15;165(12):7096-101.

  6. A variety of microbial components induce tolerance to lipopolysaccharide by differentially affecting MyD88-dependent and -independent pathways.
    Sato S, Takeuchi O, Fujita T, Tomizawa H, Takeda K, Akira S. Int Immunol. 2002 Jul;14(7):783-91.

  7. In vivo effects of a synthetic 2-kilodalton macrophage-activating lipopeptide of Mycoplasma fermentans after pulmonary application.
    Luhrmann A, Deiters U, Skokowa J, Hanke M, Gessner JE, Muhlradt PF, Pabst R, Tschernig T. Infect Immun. 2002 Jul;70(7):3785-92.

  8. Recruitment of lymphocytes and dendritic cells from the blood to the bronchoalveolar space and the draining lymph nodes after a single intrabronchial application of the lipopeptide MALP-2.
    Tschernig T, Luhrmann A, Pabst R. Pathobiology. 2002-2003;70(5):260-5.

  9. The Toll-like receptor-2/6 agonist macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 cooperates with IFN-gamma to reverse the Th2 skew in an in vitro allergy model.
    Weigt H, Muhlradt PF, Larbig M, Krug N, Braun A. J Immunol. 2004 May 15;172(10):6080-6.

  10. The Toll-like receptor ligand MALP-2 stimulates dendritic cell maturation and modulates proteasome composition and activity.
    Link C, Gavioli R, Ebensen T, Canella A, Reinhard E, Guzman CA. Eur J Immunol. 2004 Mar;34(3):899-907.

  11. Pyrexia, anorexia, adipsia, and depressed motor activity in rats during systemic inflammation induced by the Toll-like receptors-2 and -6 agonists MALP-2 and FSL-1.
    Hübschle T, Mütze J, Mühlradt PF, Korte S, Gerstberger R, Roth J. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006 Jan;290(1):R180-7. Epub 2005 Sep 8.

  12. Distinct indirect pathways govern human NK-cell activation by TLR-7 and TLR-8 agonists.
    Gorski KS, Waller EL, Bjornton-Severson J, Hanten JA, Riter CL, Kieper WC, Gorden KB, Miller JS, Vasilakos JP, Tomai MA, Alkan SS. Int Immunol. 2006 Jul;18(7):1115-26. Epub 2006 May 25.

  13. Macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 induces cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E(2) via toll-like receptor 2 in human placental trophoblast cells.
    Mitsunari M, Yoshida S, Shoji T, Tsukihara S, Iwabe T, Harada T, Terakawa N. J Reprod Immunol. 2006 Dec;72(1-2):46-59. Epub 2006 Apr 4.

  14. Nickel alterations of TLR2-dependent chemokine profiles in lung fibroblasts are mediated by COX-2. Brant KA, Fabisiak JP.
    Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2008 May;38(5):591-9. Epub 2007 Dec 20.

  15. Direct stimulatory effects of the TLR2/6 ligand bacterial lipopeptide MALP-2 on neutrophil granulocytes.
    Wilde I, Lotz S, Engelmann D, Starke A, van Zandbergen G, Solbach W, Laskay T. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2007 Jun;196(2):61-71. Epub 2006 Sep 28.

  16. Macrophage-activating lipopeptide-2 (MALP-2) induces a localized inflammatory response in rats resulting in activation of brain sites implicated in fever. Knorr C, Hübschle T, Murgott J, Mühlradt P, Gerstberger R, Roth J. Brain Res. 2008 Apr 18;1205:36-46. Epub 2008 Feb 21.

  17. TLR2/6 stimulation of the rat lung: effects on lymphocyte subsets, natural killer cells and dendritic cells in different parts of the air-conducting compartments and at different ages.
    Pabst R, Durak D, Roos A, Lührmann A, Tschernig T. Immunology. 2009 Jan;126(1):132-9. Epub 2008 Jun 19.

  18. Expression of toll-like receptor 2, NOD2 and dectin-1 and stimulatory effects of their ligands and histamine in normal human keratinocytes.
    Kobayashi M, Yoshiki R, Sakabe J, Kabashima K, Nakamura M, Tokura Y. Br J Dermatol. 2009 Feb;160(2):297-304. Epub 2008 Oct 21.

  19. Murine mast cells secrete a unique profile of cytokines and prostaglandins in response to distinct TLR2 ligands.
    Mrabet-Dahbi S, Metz M, Dudeck A, Zuberbier T, Maurer M. Exp Dermatol. 2009 May;18(5):437-44.

  20. CD47 and TLR-2 cross-talk regulates neutrophil transmigration.
    Chin AC, Fournier B, Peatman EJ, Reaves TA, Lee WY, Parkos CA. J Immunol. 2009 Nov 1;183(9):5957-63. Epub 2009 Oct 7.

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References are directly linked to the according page on the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) page.